To clear the sense of a sentence we use different types of signs in the sentences. These signs are called punctuation. According to our HSC Syllabus in Bangladesh in English Language generally we find 10 types of punctuation mostly.
Those are written and discussed below.
- Full stop or Period (.)
- Question Mark (?)
- Exclamation (!)
- Comma (,)
- Hyphen (-)
- Dash ( __ )
- Semi-colon (;)
- Colon (:)
- Apostrophe (‘)
- Inverted comma / Question Marks ( ” ” )
* Full stop, Question mark, and Exclamation mark are called End Punctuation together. Because these three are generally used at the end of a sentence.
Uses of Full Stop mark in the sentences:
- The full stop (.) will be used after declarative sentences that do not indicate inquiry or exclamation.
- Most of the pupils were well prepared for the exam.
- Many students live there.
- I found a mole’s hole.
2. After mild command, polite request we use full stop (.) in a sentence.
- Pass the book to Rana.
- Shafin, will you take out the garbage.
3. With educational degree related abbreviations we use full stop (.) after the letters.
- H. S. C = Higher Secondary Certificate
- B.A = Bachelor of Arts
- M.A = Masters of Arts
At present we are also writing as BA , MA in such a way. But for our exam we will follow the above rules.
4. We use full stop when we are writing email or web addresses.
- MahmudSir4English@gmail.com (Email address)
- MahmudSir.com (Web Address)
5. We use full stop (.) in Standard Abbreviations. Standard Abbreviations means 1st part of a word without writing the word in a full form.
- Wed. (Wednesday)
- Dec. (December)
- Ph. d (Doctor of Philosophy)
- P. M (post meridiem)
- The lunch party will be held on Sunday 14 Sept. in the WeHungry Restaurant. There we will get varieties of dishes.
6. We will not use full stop (.) when it will indicate the units of measure.
- per cent
- I should sell it one piece per cent when the customer will buy from me.
7. Generally, we will not use a full stop (.) in any abbreviation that indicates a country’s name, organization’s name, or broadcaster’s name.
But according to Oxford, in American English, USA or U.S.A. both are right.
8. We should not use full stop (.) after the last letter when we will find abbreviations such as Mister, Limited, Doctor etc.
9. If we find the abbreviation at the end of the Interrogative then we have to use the respected signs after the full stop (.).
- Will you need to send the product on C.O.D.? (C.O.D. = Cash on Delivery )
10. When we are using brackets (), if the explanation of a sentence is not a complete sentence or a phrase, then we have to use full stop outside the ending bracket.
- Motel rooms are likely to be in short supply through August (in peak travel period).
11. If the explanation of a sentence is a complete sentence, we have to use a full stop inside the ending bracket.
- Ratan’s house is the largest one on the block. (It also happens to be the ugliest. )
12. Use full stop inside the quotation mark at the ending of a sentence.
- The minister’s speech both began and ended with the word “democracy.”
13. In a quoted passage, it is a rule that we have to use 3 full stops (…) in the middle of the sentence and 4 full stops (….) at the end of the sentence if we don’t finish the sentences.
- Mr Ahmed’s letter reads as follows: “After a thorough investigation of the matter… we reached the conclusion that the error was not due to negligence….”
Uses of Comma in the sentences:
14. If two or more same type of words sit together then we have to use comma.
- There are a pen, a pencil, an eraser and a paper on the table.
- They also saw tiger, monkey, deer etc.
- I went out with Raju, Saju, Tanvir and Khokon.
- There were blue, green, red, and black bags.
15. To indicate date, address, place separately we have to use comma (,).
- Mr. Rahman was born in July 29, 1991.
- Ashik lives in Miapara, Khulna.
16. If you want to quote directly from someone’s speech, then you have to use comma (,).
- Sazid said, “I can complete the task.”
- Siam said to Galib, “Today, I will take you to see the Rupsha Bridge.”
17. If words like Hello, Yes, No, Well, But, Alright, Please, Anyway are placed at the beginning of a sentence then we have to use comma after that word.
- Yes, I sent the mail, Mr Raj.
- Hello, I’m Sadat.
- Yes, I guess you are right.
- Please, Sifat, hold this picture for me.
- Anyway, I miss them all very much.
18. We have to use commas after introductory words, phrases, clauses and modifiers.
|Introductory Words||=>||Moreover, disciples are expected to read at least one classic every eight weeks.|
|Phrase||=>||We have a government of the people, by the people, and for the people.|
|Subordinate Clause||=>||I did not know who the girl was, where she had come from, or why she was there.|
|Principal Clause||=>||I got up. I brushed my teeth and washed my face.|
|Modifier||=>||He was a tall, handsome, and gentle boy.|
19. If we find one subject in a sentence then we no need to use comma (,) before and, but, or.
- Rehan sat down and took his sneakers off.
20. If we find more than one subject in a sentence then we have to use comma (,) before and, but, or.
- Rehan was tired, and his legs were aching.
- It was a good car, but he could not afford it.
21. Like full stop mark, comma (,) will be placed inside the quotation mark.
- The police robot said, “Move.” Then it said, “Don’t move,” then, “Move,” all within twenty seconds.
22. We have to use comma (,) if the number of the digits are more than four.
- 1,47,570 square kilometers.
23. If linking words or connectors are placed at the beginning of a sentence, then we have to use comma (,) at the ending of the first clause.
- If you come, I will go.
24. We have to use comma before and after the apposition. Apposition just gives us the extra information about a noun or pronoun and it is generally placed before the main verb of a sentence.
- My father, a doctor, loves me so much.
25. We will not use comma generally after the adjective clause. The adjective clause just tells us about a noun and this clause is generally placed after a noun having who, what, which, etc.
- My father who is a doctor loves me so much.
Uses of Hyphen (-) in the sentences:
26. We will use hyphen (-) in the compound words to express a complete sense.
27. We should use hyphens in the compound adjectives. Compound adjectives are generally formed as Adjective + Participle, Noun + Adjective or Noun + Participle.
|Adjective + Participle||Noun + Adjective||Noun + Participle|
28. We must use hyphen (-) when compound adjective will be placed before a noun. For example,
- I have got an up-to-date account of Clash Royal.
- He trusts only well-known brands of shoes.
29. We will not use any hyphen (-) when this compound noun will be placed after a noun. For example,
- I got the Clash Royal account up to date.
- She san a song well known to all.
30. Sometimes combination of two words work as a compound verb. We have to use hyphen (-) in Compound Verb.
|a spot check||to spot-check|
|a court martial||a court-martial|
|an ice skate||to ice-skate|
31. We will not use hyphen (-) when phrasal verb will be created with the main verb using preposition or adverb.
- Build up = I should continue to build up my pension fund.
- Stop off = We stopped off in Jashore on the way home.
- Break in = He broke in by forcing a lock on the door of her living room.
32. But, if the phrasal verb is used as a noun then we must use hyphen (-).
- Build-up = We found a build-up of traffic on the Elephant Road.
- Stop-off = I knew there would be a stop-off in Daulatpur for refueling.
- Break-in = That house was unoccupied at the time of the break-in.
33. Words like “air-crew”, “play-group” “chat-room” were used to hyphenated (-) before. But now those are written as “aircrew”, “playgroup”, “chatroom”. We should not use “chat-room” and “chatroom” in the same sentence.
34. Sometimes hyphens (-) are used after a Prefix especially at the end of that hyphen (-) if we find a vowel. But this rule is getting obsoleted day by day and without hyphen words can be used.
- With hyphen (-) : Co-own, Pre-eminent.
- Without hyphen (-) : Cooperate (Co-operate), Prearrange (Pre-arrange).
35. We have to use hyphen when we want to separate a date or name from the Prefix.
Frequently Asked Questions (FAQS):
How to pronounce hyphen (-) ?
Hyphen (-) is pronounced as “hai . fn” or according to IPA symbol ” ˈhaɪfən “.
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