Pronoun reference grammatical rules for HSC English exam in Bangladesh

Definition of pronoun

A word which is used instead of a noun is called pronoun.

Rahim is a good cricketer. He always practices in the field.

Generally, a pronoun is placed based on the number, gender, person or the verb of the actual noun.

Rana evaluates every single moment of his day. As a result, he does well in the examination.

Here we find does has been used logically after the pronoun he.

Kinds of pronouns

Generally, there are 8 types of pronouns and those are written below.

  1. Personal pronouns
  2. Possessive pronouns
  3. Reflexive pronouns
  4. Demonstrative pronouns
  5. Indefinite pronouns
  6. Reciprocal pronouns
  7. Relative pronouns
  8. Interrogative pronouns

Besides, there are some more pronouns which are referred as “other pronouns” in this writing.

Explained all these pronouns with their important rules for HSC examination below.

1. Personal pronouns

Generally, this type of pronoun refers to the people and things such as I, me, they, them etc.

Person Singular Plural
First I We
Second You You
Third He

She

One

It

They

We can divide the personal pronouns in two forms. Those are:

a) subject pronouns

b) object pronouns

Focus on the forms of subject pronoun and object pronoun below.

  Singular Plural
Subject
I You He She It One
We You They
Object
Me You Him Her It One
Us You Them

Personal pronouns and its uses:

i) Generally, we use I, you, he, she, they in the subject position.

For example,

  • I love playing.
  • She hates being late to school.
  • Sachin was a cricketer, wasn’t he?

ii) Personal pronouns such as me, you, him, her, us, them are always used in the object position. They will never be placed in the beginning of a sentence.

For example,

  • He spoke to me last Friday.
  • I mentioned you several times in my writing.
  • He gave her a book.
  • I gave them a treat.

iii) Personal pronoun “it” refers to both animate and inanimate object. Its subject and object forms are the same like the pronoun “you”.

For example,

  • Look at this dress. It is really beautiful.
  • Abir: Does he like his new car? Bithi: He loves it.

We can also use the pronoun it to indicate dates, days, distances, time, weather etc.

For example,

  • It was the 28th anniversary yesterday.
  • It’s 9:30 now.
  • It’s Sunday today.
  • It’s sunny today.
  • It’s 30 miles today.

Note to remember: In common sense, generally, we use it when we find the noun is a lower type animal.

For example,

Dog is a faithful animal. It never breaks the trust of its master.

But, in a story or a novel when we will find an animal that has the characteristics of a human being then we will use the pronoun he or she instead of it.

For instance,

In the Tom and Jerry show, Tom always chases Jerry. He also sleeps lazily most of the time.

Again, we use he or she as the pronouns when we indicate ships, cars or countries. Few examples will make this term more clear.

  • The Titanic was a beautiful ship. She sank pitifully in her first voyage.
  • Britain and her allies did not accept the independence of Bangladesh in the beginning.

iv) We can use “he or she” if we are not sure of the identity of the person.

For example,

  • By the age of three, a child can comprehend much more than he or she generally speak.

But instead of “he or she” we can also use the pronoun “they” if we find the noun is plural.

For example,

  • By the age of three, children can comprehend much more than they generally speak.

 Possessive pronouns and its uses:

PersonSingularPlural
Firstmineours
Secondyoursyours
Thirdhis/herstheirs

* There are two Possessive forms of pronoun. Those are: a) Possessive Adjectives  b) Possessive Pronouns.

Possessive AdjectivePossessive Pronoun
MyMine
HisHis
HerHers
YourYours
OurOurs
TheirTheirs

* We should not be confused with “its” and “it’s”.

Its = Possessive Adjective = Its name is Tommy.

It’s = Abbreviation or Contraction of “It is” = It’s a beautiful place.

v) After Possessive Adjective we must have to use a noun. But we cannot use a noun after using the Possessive Pronoun.

For example,

Possessive AdjectivePossessive Pronoun
This is my pianoThe piano is mine.
Is this your car?Is this car yours?

vi) If we find two nouns in a sentence, later in the use of pronoun we should mention the noun again in the second sentence to make specific.

For example,

I locked my watch locked in a small iron box, and later it was stolen. (Incorrect)

From the above sentence, we do not understand the pronoun “it” is mentioning which noun (my watch or a small iron box)?

So, the correct sentence could be the following:

I locked my watch locked in a small iron box, and later my watch / the iron box was stolen. (correct)

vii) We have to try to avoid the use of all types of vague pronouns from the sentence if the pronouns do not clarify the meaning.

For example,

We never buy flowers from mall because they charge much. (Incorrect)

We never buy flowers from mall because the owners charge much. (Correct)